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عناصر گفتمان اسلام سیاسی

اسلام سیاسی» در گیرودار منازعات اسلامی و غربی گرفتار، گاه به دشنام رادیکالیسم و بنیادگرایی رانده و گاه به اصلاح‌گرایی و نوگرایی خوانده شده است. منازعاتی برخاسته از تقابل گفتمان‌ها برای معنادهی و نام‌دهی به پدیده‌های سیاسی که روندی معمول است. ورای این منازعات و تقابل‌ها، بابی سعید معتقد است که مفهوم اسلام سیاسی بیشتر برای توصیف آن دسته از جریان‌های سیاسی اسلام به کار می‌رود که خواستار ایجاد حکومتی برمبنای اصول اسلامی هستند. اما می‌توان به‌طور دقیق‌تر جریان‌هایی را که به ورود دین به عرصه‌ی سیاست اندیشیده و بر این مبنا در تلاش ایجاد راهی برای گسترش حضور دین در سیاست هستند، اسلام سیاسی گفت. با روشن شدن مقصود نگارنده از اسلام سیاسی، باید به یک نقطه‌ی آغاز و یا ایستگاه اندیشه‌ای در تکوین این گفتمان در ایران پرداخت. گفتمان اسلام سیاسی بر میراث انباشته‌ای از مجاهدت‌های اندیشمندان و متفکرانی چون سید جمال‌الدین اسدآبادی، رشید رضا و سید قطب بنا شده است، اما در دهه‌ی هفتاد میلادی بود که این گفتمان در قالب گفتمان امام خمینی (ره) تحولی شگرف را تجربه کرد. گفتمانی که توانست انقلابی را برپا نماید و نظامی را دلالت نماید که تنها الگوی حکومتی شیعی در جهان است. واکاوی این گفتمان دغدغه‌ی اصلی نوشتار زیر است.
چگونگی تکوین گفتمان اسلام سیاسی
گفتمان اسلام سیاسی در ایران، در مقابل گفتمان پهلویسم و غرب شکل گرفت. این گفتمان حول دال مرکزی اسلام شکل گرفته بود. گفتمانی که مذهب با وام‌گیری از مفاهیم نو احیا کرد و به آن خاصیتی جسورانه و مبارز بخشید. گفتمان‌ اسلام سیاسی پیش از انقلاب از خرده‌گفتمان‌های متعددی برخوردار بود که هرکدام معنایی خاص به دال مرکزی اسلام می‌بخشیدند و تعبیری متمایز از اسلام داشتند. اما این گفتمان امام خمینی بود که بر آن تفوق یافت.
گفتمان اسلام سیاسی فقاهتی؛ گفتمان امام خمینی (ره)
گفتمان اسلام سیاسی فقاهتی که شاید نمود اصلی گفتمان اسلام سیاسی در ایران است، حول اندیشه‌ی امام خمینی شکل گرفته است و بر ولایت فقیه، فقه و روحانیت به‌عنوان مفسران اصلی شریعت تأکید می‌کند. امام خمینی (ره) در طی سال‌های مبارزه با پهلوی، در سایه‌ی تفسیر جدیدی که از اسلام سیاسی ارائه داد، توانست چتری را برپا کند که در زیر آن، مجموعه‌‌ای از مفاهیم برگرفته از سنت اسلامی و تجدد را، که تا آن زمان شاید نسبتی با هم نداشتند، در سال ۵۷ در گفتمان انقلاب اسلامی گرد آورد.[۱] این گفتمان مختصات متعددی را دارا بود که موجب اعتبار و افزایش قابلیت دسترسی آن می‌گردید.
استبداد ستیزی یکی از وجوه هویتی گفتمان اسلام فقاهتی است؛ ستیزه با استبداد که با توجه به متن منازعات در قالب کردارهای گفتمانی و غیرگفتمانی چون سخنرانی، تظاهرات و اعتصابات پیش می‌رفت. در واقع گفتمان اسلام فقاهتی، مبارزه‌ی مسلحانه را در حاشیه قرار داده بود و بدین ترتیب، گفتمان‌های رقیبی چون مجاهدین خلق و فداییان خلق را، که در مقابل پهلویسم دست به سلاح برده بودند، طرد می‌کرد. این گفتمان سعی داشت تا با تهی ساختن دال‌های شاه، سلطنت و قرار دادن دال مرکزی اسلام، گفتمان حاکم را به چالش بکشد. به‌تدریج که الگوی سلبی مبارزه وجهی ایجابی نیز یافت و حکومت اسلامی مطرح شد، تقابل با استبداد تشدید گردید و فقیه بازنمایی همه‌ی چیزهایی گردید که شاه نداشت. بنابراین باید دال مرکزی اسلام را به‌عنوان اوج به چالش کشیدن گفتمان پهلویسم، که در هم‌نشینی با غرب قرار داشت، دانست و به آن پرداخت.
دال مرکزی گفتمان اسلام فقاهتی که بعدها اساس گفتمان انقلاب اسلامی را نیز شکل داد، اسلام بود. این متن از سخنان امام، نمونه‌ای از بازنمایی دال اسلام در جهت نفی گفتمان‌های ضداسلامی است:
«ما نمی‌گوییم حکومت باید با فقیه باشد، بلکه می‌گوییم حکومت باید با قانون خدایی که صلاح کشور و مردم است اداره شود و این بی‌نظارت روحانی صورت نمی‌گیرد؛ چنان‌که دولت مشروطه نیز این امر را تصویب و تصدیق کرده است.»[۲] گفتمان اسلام فقاهتی، مبارزه‌ی مسلحانه را در حاشیه قرار داده بود و بدین ترتیب، گفتمان‌های رقیبی چون مجاهدین خلق و فداییان خلق را، که در مقابل پهلویسم دست به سلاح برده بودند، طرد می‌کرد. این گفتمان سعی داشت تا با تهی ساختن دال‌های شاه، سلطنت و قرار دادن دال مرکزی اسلام، گفتمان حاکم را به چالش بکشد.
قانون خدا در این متن، دال اسلام را بازنمایی می‌نماید. در متن، حکومت‌ با قانون خدا و روحانی پیوند می‌خورد. با رحلت آیت‌الله بروجردی و کردار سیاسی پهلوی در قضیه‌ی لایحه‌ی انجمن‌های ایالتی و ولایتی، گفتمان امام در عرصه‌ی سیاسی، ابزارهای گفتمانی و غیرگفتمانی خویش را به کار برد تا این اقدام را که در جهت بازتولید گفتمان غرب‌گرایی و تجدد و ایجاد هویت‌های گفتمانی مطلوب خود بود، به چالش بکشد. از این تاریخ به بعد، گفتمان امام وارد مرحله‌ی نوینی شد. نظم گفتمان ایشان که به گفتمان احیاگری اسلامی تعلق داشت، بر میراث بازمانده‌ی کنشگرانی بنا شد که فرهنگ مقاومت و گفتمان بازگشت به خویشتن را در معنایی اسلامی ساخته بودند. زین پس دال اسلام برگرفته از نظام معنایی مذهب بن‌مایه‌ی مخالفت‌ها شد.
کارکرد دیگر دال اسلام «غیریت‌سازی» است که موجب می‌شود تا گفتمان اسلامی هویت یابد. اسلام در گفتمان امام، تمایز بین گفتمان اسلامی انقلاب و سایر گفتمان‌ها را شکل می‌دهد و نشان می‌دهد که چگونه فرایند مبارزه بر نهاد مذهب جاری است.
این متن همچنین گفتمان‌های شرقی و غربی را به حاشیه رانده و به آن توجهی نکرده است. تلاش امام در جهت تثبیت هویت مستقل گفتمان انقلاب، با نفی وابستگی به احزاب و دو قطب شرق و غرب و تنها وابستگی به خداوند و اتکا و توکل به ذات الهی نمود می‌یابد.
امام عنصر اسلام را از حوزه‌ی گفتمانگی به گفتمان خود پیوند می‌زند و به‌تدریج نظم مذهبی را به نظم سیاسی می‌‌آمیزد. بدین ترتیب، اسلام وارد عرصه‌ی سیاست می‌گردد؛ چراکه دین از منظر ایشان «صرفاً به رابطه‌ی انسان با خدا توجه ندارد؛ بلکه رابطه‌ی انسان‌ها با یکدیگر در عرصه‌ی اجتماع را نیز مورد عنایت و توجه قرار می‌دهد. ایشان معتقد به دین حداکثری بودند.»[۳] دینی که هم دنیا و هم آخرت را سامان می‌بخشد و پاسخ‌گوی تمامی اقتضائات زمانی و مکانی است. گزاره‌ی جدایی دین از سیاست در گفتمان جایی ندارد؛ چراکه اسلام سیاسی است و غیر این، آفریده‌ی کنشگرانی است که در گفتمان‌های غیراسلامی هویت یافته‌اند و منافع‌شان با تحکیم گفتمان موجود پیوند خورده بود.[۴] دال‌های شناور
استقلال: به دلیل وابستگی گفتمان پهلویسم با غرب، استقلال به‌مثابه‌ی یکی از دال‌های تهی گفتمان پهلویسم، از حوزه‌ی گفتمانگی به گفتمان اسلام سیاسی، مفصل‌بندی شد. این امر به‌خصوص در نظم گفتاری امام نمود دارد.ایشان با مفصل‌بندی استقلال به گفتمان خود، وجهی از دشمن‌ستیزی و تقابل با غیر را به نمایش می‌گذارد:
«از عموم طبقات برای صیانت احکام اسلام و استقلال ممالک اسلامی استمداد می‌کنم و اطمینان دارم با وحدت کلمه‌ی مسلمین… صفوف اجانب و مخالفین درهم شکسته و هیچ‌گاه به فکر تجاوز به ممالک اسلام نخواهد افتاد.»[۵] وحدت: دال وحدت یکی دیگر از دال‌های شناوری است که به‌منظومه گفتمانی اسلام فقاهتی پیوند می‌خورد و در راستای ایجاد اسطوره‌ی «امت واحده‌ی اسلام»، بارها در گفتار امام به کار گرفته می‌شود و کارکردی بازتولیدکننده از «هویت امت اسلامی» دارد. فرایندی از هویت‌بخشی به کنشگران جهان اسلام که در تقابل با استعمار و استبداد، تحقیر و سرخورده شده‌اند و نیازمند هویت گفتمانی نوینی هستند که به آنان جایگاه بخشد. نمونه‌ی سخنان امام خمینی بار دیگر شاهدی بر این ادعاست.[۶] همچنین در گفتمان امام، وحدت در هم‌نشینی با استقلال سازه‌ی نظری امام را قوت می‌بخشد. چنان‌که وحدت کلمه‌ی علمای اعلام اسلام و مراجع وقت در گفتمان ایشان منجر به حفظ استقلال مملکت و قطع دست اجانب می‌گردد.[۷] استکبارستیزی: فرایند غیریت‌یابی گفتمان اسلام فقاهتی که بر مسیر تقابل با گفتمان‌های غرب و شرق پیش می‌رود، روندی از مبارزه با استکبار را نیز پیش می‌گیرد. آنچه در تمایزسازی‌ها و دوگانگی‌سازی‌ها به تنش مداوم دارالحرب و دارالاسلام نظام بین‌المللی معنا می‌دهد.[۸]‌شوند. تأکید بر تهدید از سوی غرب که بنا به نظر برخی از پیوند غرب-آمریکا با قدرت سرکوبگر پهلوی و حس سرکوب و نفی شدن و هراس از آن نشئت می‌گرفت، موجب شد تا هویت اسلامی گفتمان انقلابی برجسته و متمایزتر شود. امپریالیسم جهانی، استعمار، ظالم و مستکبر به موازات حمایت از مسلمانان، مظلومان و مستضعفان نفی می
از دیگر سو، غرب، دارالحرب و دارالکفری به شمار می‌رفت که بنا به قاعده‌ی نفی سبیل، برتری و سلطه‌ی آن در کهن الگوی مذهبی، تهدیدکننده محسوب می‌شد و بنابراین خواه این تهدید در شکل‌گیری اسرائیل و خواه در حمایت آمریکا از پهلوی، به هر حال تهدیدی مهم محسوب می‌شد که هویت اصیل اسلامی را نشانه گرفته بود و باید با آن به ستیزه می‌پرداخت؛ آنچه در طی انقلاب اسلامی با شعار مرگ بر آمریکا و در عمل با تسخیر لانه‌ی جاسوسی بازنمایی شد. بدین ترتیب، تقابل‌سازی با استکبار، مسیر مبارزه با آن را مشخص می‌ساخت و بر تشخص گفتمانی اسلام سیاسی می‌افزود.
آزادی، قانون و مردم: عناصر دیگری بودند که از حوزه‌ی گفتمانگی خارج و به گفتمان امام پیوند خوردند. پیوند این دال‌ها به گفتمان امام، موجب شد تا اجماع و پیوند کنشگران انقلابی با ایده و نظرهای گوناگون حول گفتمان امام تثبیت شود و گفتمان امام، گفتمان انقلاب شود.[۹] نشانه‌هایی که از منظومه‌ی مذهبی شیعی گرفته شده‌اند، همچون علی (ع)، حسین (ع)، محرم، ماه صفر و… نشان می‌دهد که چگونه نظم گفتاری امام، مذهب را به سیاست پیوند می‌زند و نشانه‌های مذهبی را معنایی سیاسی می‌بخشد. در واقع دال مرکزی اسلام توسط امام، مفهومی است که مرزبندی ما و دیگران را در نظم گفتاری ایشان ایجاد می‌کند و هویت «خویشتن اصیل» را بازسازی می‌نماید. «خویشتنی» که آمیخته با «اصالت اسلامی» و در درجه‌ی دوم «اصالت شرقی» است و اصالت اسلامی تبدیل به عنصر خالص و بدون اختلاط (آمیزش و ترکیب) با هر نوع از بی‌اصالتی‌ها، یعنی عنصر بیگانه می‌شود و بدین‌گونه برجسته می‌گردد.[۱۰] از مهم‌ترین کارکرد دال اسلام «غیریت‌سازی» است که موجب می‌شود تا گفتمان اسلامی هویت یابد. اسلام در گفتمان امام، تمایز بین گفتمان اسلامی انقلاب و سایر گفتمان‌ها را شکل می‌دهد و نشان می‌دهد که چگونه فرایند مبارزه بر نهاد مذهب جاری است.
اسطوره تا واقعیت حکومت اسلامی
به‌تدریج و با تهی ساختن دال‌های گفتمان پهلویسم، اسطوره‌ای به نام حکومت اسلامی عیان گردید؛ اسطوره‌ای که در جلسات درسی امام پا گرفت و وجهه‌ی ایجابی گفتمان انقلابی امام را ساخت: «حکومت اسلامی حکومت قانون است و این طرز حکومت و این حاکمیت منحصر به خداست و قانون فرمان و حکم خداست.»[۱۱]

این اسطوره توانست الگوی بدیل حکومت شاهنشاهی شود. ولایت فقیه به‌عنوان دال این گفتمان بر وجود فقیه جامع شرایط در مسند حکومت دلالت می‌کرد که در وجود امام خمینی عینیت یافته بود. همین امر بر قابلیت اعتبار و دسترسی گفتمان اسلام فقاهتی در مقابل سایر گفتمان‌های رقیب می‌افزود و در نهایت نیز به تفوق گفتمانی امام بر سایر گفتمان‌ها انجامید و حتی شکل حکومت را پس از پیروزی انقلاب اسلامی شکل داد.
همچنین نهادهایی چون ولایت فقیه، خبرگان رهبری و شورای نگهبان، پس از پیروزی انقلاب اسلامی دال مرکزی اسلام را به رخ می‌کشید. نهادهایی چون حزب جمهوری اسلامی، جامعه‌ی مدرسین، جامعه‌ی روحانیت، سازمان مجاهدین، جمعیت مؤتلفه‌ی اسلامی، حزب توحید و حزب‌الله از حامیان این گفتمان محسوب می‌شدند و در قالب این گفتمان هویت می‌یافتند.
فرجام سخن
گفتمان اسلام سیاسی با گفتمان امام خمینی تحولی شگرف یافت و هویتی نوین یافت. کنشگران سرخورده از گفتمان پهلویسم و غربی در ایران، با حافظه‌ای انباشته از تحقیر در گفتمان اسلامی امام خمینی، هویتی انقلابی یافتند و حس اعتمادبه‌نفس آنان سدی در برابر استبداد و استکبار ساخت. این گفتمان حول دال متعالی اسلام، تعبیری تازه از آن ارائه کرد و اسلام معنایی سیاسی یافت. بدین ترتیب، دو نهاد مذهب و سیاست پهنه‌ی وسیعی ساختند که بدیل‌ حکومت شاهنشاهی را در قالب حکومت اسلامی می‌ساخت.
فرایند تقابل با استبداد، تقایب با استکبار را نیز شامل می‌شد؛ چراکه استبداد داخل و استکبار خارج قرین یکدیگر بودند و در حافظه‌ی تاریخی کنشگران هم‌پیوند. استقلال، وحدت، آزادی، مردم و قانون، دال‌های تهی حکومت پهلویسم بودند که در گفتمان امام معنا یافتند. حکومت اسلامی برگرفته از دو منظومه‌ی معنایی مذهبی و سیاسی، بر ولایت فقیه دلالت یافت و نمایشی از خلأهای مفهومی پهلویسم را به رخ مخاطبان کشید. این‌گونه بود که گفتمان اسلام سیاسی بر انقلاب ایران تفوق یافت و انقلاب اسلامی ایران و حتی نظام سیاسی پس از آن را شکل داد و سکان مدیریت کشور را به دست نهادهای برخاسته از پیوند دین و سیاست، سپرد.(*)
منابع:

[۱] سید علی‌اصغر سلطانی، قدرت، گفتمان و زبان سازوکارهای جریان قدرت در جمهوری اسلامی ایران، تهران، نشر نی، ۱۳۸۴، ص ۱۳۹.
[۲] امام خمینی، کشف‌الاسرار، بی‌جا، نشر ظفر، ۱۳۲۳، ص ۲۲۲.
[۳] محمدرضا دهشیری، درآمدی بر نظریه‌ی سیاسی امام خمینی، تهران، مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی، ۱۳۸۰، ص ۱۸۶.
[۴] همان، ص ۳۳۸.
[۵] همان، ص ۱۸۳ و ۱۸۴.
[۶] همان، ص ۱۹۸و امام خمینی، صحیفه‌ی امام، تهران، مؤسسه‌ی تنظیم نشر و آثار امام خمینی، ج ۱، ۱۳۷۸، ص ۳۳۶ و ۳۷۶.
[۷] همان.
[۸] مجید ادیب‌زاده، گفتمان و سیاست خارجی، تهران، نشر اختران، ۱۳۸۷، ص ۷۳.
[۹] امام خمینی، همان، ج ۳، ص ۷۴.
[۱۰] مجید ادیب‌زاده،گفتمان و سیاست خارجی، ص ۸۰.
[۱۱] امام خمینی، ولایت فقیه، تهران، مؤسسه‌ی تنظیم نشر و آثار امام خمینی، چاپ اول، بهار ۱۳۷۳، ص ۳۴.

*حسین نادریان؛ پژوهشگر و محقق

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